Important Dates in the History of the Berlin Wall
|September 12, 1944
||In the London Protocol of the agreement between
Great Britain, the USSR, and the United States of America, the delimitation of the future
zones of occupation and the principles of joint administration of Greater Berlin create
the foundations for the fourPower status of Berlin. Berlin becomes the seat of the Allied
Control Council and an Inter-Allied Governing Authority. On November 14, 1944, France is
included in the treaty.
|August 2, 1945
||The Potsdam Agreement formally establishes the
four-Power status of Berlin.
|June 18, 1948 to May 4, 1949
||The Berlin blockade. The USSR blocks all surface
access routes between the western zones of ocupation and the western sectors of Berlin.
The western Allies supply the population of West Berlin by air.
|May 23, 1949
||The Federal Republic of Germany is founded.
|October 7, 1949
||The German Democratic Republic (GDR) is founded.
|November 27, 1958
||The USSR issues its ultimatum on Berlin. In a note
to the western powers, the GDR, and the Federal Republic, the USSR demands that West
Berlin be made a "demilitarized free city" and thereby an "separate
|December 16-18, 1958
||The NATO Council rejects the Soviet proposals and
confirms the four-Power status of Berlin.
|June 3-4, 1961
||Meeting between USSR Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev
and President John F. Kennedy in Vienna, to discuss the German Question.
|June 15, 1961
||At an international press conference on the border
with West Berlin, Walter Ulbricht uses the term "wall" for the first time
|August 13, 1961
||Erection of the "Berlin wall."
|December 18, 1963 to January 5, 1964
||First pass agreement between the government of the
GDR and the Berlin Senate.
|August 12, 1970
||A treaty between the USSR and the Federal Republic
creates favorable conditions for securing the access routes to and from West Berlin.
|September 3, 1971
||The Quadripartite Agreement. France, Great Britain,
the Soviet Union, and the United States reconfirm the rights and responsibilities of the
western powers in and for West Berlin. The Soviet Union guarantees open communications
between the Federal Republic and West Berlin.
|June 3, 1972
||Traffic Treaty: The government of the GDR and the
Berlin Senate agree on the principles for visits by West Berliners to the eastern part of
the city and the GDR.
|December 21, 1972
||Basic treaty between the GDR and the Federal
Republic. Both sides commit themselves, among other things, to settle all disagreements
peacefully and to refrain from threatening the use of force.
|June 12, 1987
||In a speech held in front of the Brandenburg Gate,
President Ronald Reagan issues his call on General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev of the
Soviet Union: Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!"
|August 19, 1989
||Six hundred East German citizens flee to Austria
|September 30, 1989
||Seven thousand East German citizens in the West
German embassies in Prague and Warsaw are allowed to leave for the Federal Republic.
|October 30, 1989
||At a demonstration before the Red City Hall, two
hundred thousand East Berliners demand that the wall be torn down.
|November 9-10, 1989
||The Berlin wall opens.