On Nazi-Confiscated Art, Responsibility and Restitution

Twenty years ago, on 3 December 1998, the Principles of the Washington Conference, also known as the Washington Declaration, were adopted. This international agreement formed the basis for dealing with Nazi-confiscated art. It first made possible the restitution, in the year 2000, of the painting Borussia, which is currently the focus of the intervention REVEALED BY THE REVERSE. The Hidden History of a Painting by Adolph Menzel. Why was the painting returned to its rightful owners so late, although its forced sale during the National Socialist period was clearly documented? In a further contribution to our series on provenance research at the DHM, the curators of the intervention, Susan Geißler and Darja Jesse, examine this question.